June 10, 2010 - tragic day in the history of modern Kyrgyzstan. According to the UN, over one million people have become victims of the conflict. Since four years have passed. What has changed? What conclusions did the authorities, analyzing the events of 2010? This question 24.kg news agency asked its respondents.
Gulgaky Mamasaliyeva, Osh city resident:
- At first sight, everything is peaceful in Osh. There are good relations between people,conditions for settlement and preventiuon of conflicts. But, on the other hand, there are still frequent violations by law enforcement agencies and district officers. The change of power in Osh had a negative impact on peacebuilding; the mayor's office is trying to change the chairmen of regional councils, who worked with the population for 3-4 years. They put their own people who could help them in the elections.
There are, of course, positive steps too. Public reception was formed, where citizens can file complaints and appeals, including those associated with ethnic conflicts. However, people don't go there. Because there is no feedback. Person just sits and takes appeals, but there are no preventive measures. Public reception - one of the good ideas.
In addition, there are conflicts that need to be addressed in private. The question on resettlement at Monuyeva Street was resolved, now it is planed to demolish buildings at Osh Street, where 28 households take place. While the issue is on the agenda, the new government is waiting for the master plan, according to which, we should discuss this issue again.
The question on moving of injured during the June events people is also urgent. Apartments are provided only to the families of the dead, there are injured of different categories. Sixteen-house is still not settled. 4 years have passed; people say that the building is crooked. And the government can't decide whether to move people into or not. If to connect communication, the house, possibly will collapse.
Father Victor, the Head of Orthodox Church:
- Now the situation in society is more or less stable. The authorities don't prevent religious outreach, what is good. We are making our mission: education, social activities. We support state policies. Since then, the authorities have done much to reconcile the warring parties. Now society is peaceful. When public events are being held, we feel it. I don't see any persecution or oppression. But migration is not stopped: Uzbeks and Kyrgyz and Russian leave. Not because instability in the region or ethnic tensions, more for economic reasons. The standard of living is still low.
Asel Abraimova, the expert on youth issues, Osh city resident:
- The situation has stabilized, people come to their senses. But there are closed communities, which are not in center, but they have fear. Representatives of Uzbek communities are afraid to participate in meetings or elections. There is a fear to faced the conflict again, while expressing their political opinions. If you take those areas where mixed population lives, there the situation is stabilized. Now we need to focus on closed communities, where people of only one nationality live. Socio-economic situation also affects the mood. In closed groups banned religious organization are actively introduced. In remote areas, it is felt at the school level. Children are prohibited to go to school; girls don't attend school after the 9th grade. There are communities where women wear black only. What is happening within this community is not always open and clear. After the events in June, these groups have become more closed. The events of 2010 have given impetus to the fact that these groups are closed from social processes and state. They live by their own laws. And there is no tendency towards convergence, they are increasingly closing.
Sarvar Salimov, the employee of NGO, Osh city resident:
- District officials prevent minor conflicts in markets. This is also the government action. This is a good step. Even the presence of the district officials is good. At the same time, they are not much involved in the lives of citizens in order not to have the feeling of state of emergency, and on the other hand, people see them. But I can't say that there are no conflicts at all. Differences appear at the household level. The main task for the government - to keep a neutral position with respect to the parties. It is very important to note the work of the Committee on Youth, whose officers patrol the schools. The work of NGOs in the south also should be noted, perhaps because there are many of them, and their work is more visible than the work of City Hall. The Committee on Youth Work organizes school of leaders to engage children from different communities and social groups. They locally form their agents, who will carry the idea of equality, unity and of belonging to the country. The basis for the conflict - unemployment. Ignorance is the cause of intolerance towards each other.
Alexander Zelichenko, the expert:
- If to look at the situation from the point of view of the inhabitant and disinterested person, then one can say that the situation has stabilized and everything is fine. People live their lives, pubic transport operates, all ruined facilities are restored. But actually, if to look attentively, with interested look, then not everything is so good. In fact, the situation is very tense. Very little has been done to ensure the security. This is evidenced by at least the fact that people in the south are trying to live more in their communities. If previously, there were multinational houses, now people are selling flats and move to Mahalla closer to their own nation.
I worked as a peacemaker in the Balkans for 5 years. There are established procedures that allow resolving such conflicts. For example, in case of interethnic conflict, as we had, one nation or ethnic minority try to integrate into the law enforcement agencies, public authorities. It causes trust to the government. Of course, we can't say that nothing has been done. A lot has been done. Destroyed buildings have been restored; the people have hope for a brighter future. But politically it should be done a lot more. And this requires a strong political will.
- What conclusions did the power make of the conflict in 2010?
- It is difficult to answer this question. Probably, none. The situation continues to smolder. Political will and truly wise leader, whom representatives of all nationalities living in the regions will trust, are needed. It's real. In our country, there are a lot of talented people who are able to solve this problem.
Khulkar Isamova, the journalist of Reuters international news agency, Osh city resident:
- At present, the city is quiet and stable: markets work, people communicate with each other. Of course, there are fears of a fourth anniversary; there are various rumors in the city. But we talked to the police officers, they say that everything is under control, the police are on high alert and the authorities won't allow provocations. As for the conclusions after the events of 2010, the people themselves made them from their past mistakes. They don't want a repetition of such events. And the government, on the contrary, falls into the same trap. Personnel changes that occur in the city have a very profound effect on people's mood. I believe that the government should change its attitude towards the south in general and to Osh, in order such events won't repeat in the future.
Sheradil Baktygulov, the political scientist:
- Very tense situation is traditionally formed in this region. I recall that in 2010 it was the second such conflict, 20 years ago, similar events have occurred in Uzgen city. In 2010, ethnic conflict occurred in Osh city, Osh and Jalal-Abad provinces. As you can see, geographically these are two different conflicts. What unites them is that the same ethnic group participated in it. What is the reason? One ethnic group studied the history of Uzbekistan, as it is presented in a neighboring country. As a result, people have preserved themselves, lived in their own little world. The relationship between the two dominant ethnic groups in southern Kyrgyzstan -
Kyrgyz and Uzbeks - have always been tense. Each group tries to prove its superiority. Such parochial national patriotism continually led to conflicts. Everyday nationalism has always been in the region. And Uzbeks and Kyrgyz are afraid to go in the district, which is dominated by another ethnic group.
- What has changed after the events of 2010?
- The sobering came. People began to realize that life is a little different than they imagined. And they began to look for formulas, how to live. Most have left to live in their preserved world. The minority decided to adapt to new realities. There is also a group that wants to use the situation in the region to its own advantage. Authorities certainly have learned from these events. In 2010, the Ministry of Defence hasn't engaged in restoring order in the south. First it was the task of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, because the internal forces were introduced, which, in fact, had no relation to the Ministry of Defense. It now they are all included in a single system. Another mistake of the authorities in 2010 was that the Chiefs of the Department of Internal Affairs and the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Osh region had changed. As the result the connection with the agency was broken. If the old chiefs were left in place, such tragic consequences, in my opinion, wouldn't happen. Now the state has created all the conditions for conciliation of opposing sides. The Ministry of Defence will deal with it. The department pays great attention to the training of personnel in peacekeeping operations. That is right. After the events of 2010 and the deputies, and the higher echelons of power began to understand that such measures must be taken.
In addition, the Agency for Local Government Affairs and Ethnic Relations was formed. In the president's office there is a department of Ethnic Relations. But this is not enough. Now we need to raise the issue of civism. Who is a citizen of the Kyrgyz Republic? But there are no visible results in this work. It doesn't go further traditional activities. But these events - only the form but there is no content.
Muzaffar Tursunov, the expert:
- I believe that the events of 2010 shouldn't repeat: people realize just how sad the consequences will be, and the authority has taken steps to change the situation. Because actually the power in the south was criminalized. After staff transfers the authorities of the south are under relative control of the central government. This gives opportunity to manage the situation. But the problem is that the government is still not under the control of the public. Many decisions are made behind the scenes, without the knowledge of the population. People don't have enough information about what is happening. The efforts of the authorities don't mean that they can effectively manage. They have no methods to resolve conflict.
The events of 2010 - the fight for power. And people now understand it. They were simply fooled. Those who raised the banner of nationalism are ordinary corruptionists. They are "feathered their nest" on nationalist slogans but ordinary people suffer.